Base de datos : IBECS
Búsqueda : "1136-4890" [ISSN]
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  1 / 729 IBECS  
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Id: ET2-5396 IBECS-Express
Autor: Valenzuela, Juan José; Orellana, Mathias; Gold, Marjorie; Garcia, Guernica; Santana, Andrés.
Título: Anatomy of the lateral pterygoid muscle and its relationship with temporomandibular disorders. A literature review
Fuente: Eur. j. anat;24(3):249-256, mayo 2020. tab, ilus, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: The lateral pterygoid muscle is a chewing muscle that is found bilaterally in the cranial region. Anatomically, the lateral pterygoid muscle is made up of two bellies, an upper belly and a lower belly. Its anatomical description present in the scientific lit-erature showed that there is an anatomical differ-ence or variation, mainly the insertions of the up-per belly of the lateral pterygoid muscle at the level of the temporomandibular joint, and specifically in the disc and articular condyle, although distribu-tions are reported similarly. They are not entirely accurate in smaller quantities: some articles re-ported variations in the insertion of the lower belly and others the appearance of a third belly of the lateral pterygoid muscle or medial belly. As men-tioned above, a high number of studies that presented some type of lateral pterygoid muscle vari-ation was associated with some type of temporo-mandibular disorders of the joint or some of its in-tra or extra-articular components. A review of the literature in scientific databases was carried out after the selection of the scientific articles, which were analyzed in full text, and the relationship between the anatomy of the lateral pterygoid muscleand the temporomandibular disorders was sought

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  2 / 729 IBECS  
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Id: ET2-5395 IBECS-Express
Autor: Farsides, Tom; Smith, Claire F.
Título: Consent in Body Donation
Fuente: Eur. j. anat;24(3):239-248, mayo 2020. ilus, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: This article explores potential threats to the validity of consent in body donation and potential responses to such threats. To minimize abstract generalizations, the article draws particularly on United Kingdom regulations but each of the issues it explores is applicable in many countries. Methods used were searches of relevant (e. g. , medical ethical) literatures using pertinent search terms (e. g. , consent) and discussions with multiple stake-holders (e. g. , family members of body donors). The main threats identified were: (1) failing to ade-quately acknowledge relatives' roles in donation, particularly as donation often cannot be completed without relatives' active participation; (2) failing to ensure that donors are informed enough to be able to give valid consent, especially given 'specification' and 'temporality' problems inherent in establishing consent for body donation; and (3) failing to genuinely prioritize donors' motives and concerns during and after obtaining their consent. Possible ways of countering these threats include layering information given and made available to potential donors and having donors consent not to 'donation and anything that might follow', but instead to 'relative-acknowledged donation, selective explicit consent, and delegated decision-making'. The latter involves donors specifying and relatives acknowledging donors' key preferences and prohi-bitions, among which is nomination or acceptance of specified proxies who may make decisions on donors' behalf after their death. By making such changes, the validity of consent for body donation could be substantially improved in ways that also increase respect for both donors and their autonomy. These changes may also increase the number of completed donations

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  3 / 729 IBECS  
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Id: ET2-5394 IBECS-Express
Autor: Bhatia, Deepak N.
Título: Distal biceps tendon insertional trifurcation and a new footprint configuration: Case report of an anatomical variant
Fuente: Eur. j. anat;24(3):235-238, mayo 2020. ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: Distal biceps tendon (DBT) insertion on the elbow bicipital tuberosity is usually bifurcated into distinct long and short head components, and oc-casionally the tendon may insert as a single unit. A previously undescribed trifurcate insertion of the DBT was observed during anatomical dissections; this new anatomical finding involved 3 distinct divisions of the distal biceps: (1) a distal short head insertion, (2) a proximal long head insertion, and (3) an extra / accessory head that bifurcated from the long head and inserted with an anterior and radial footprint. Recognition of this variant is necessary, as DBT insertional trifurcation may alter radiological interpretation of imaging scans and may obscure endoscopic visualization of the insertional area during diagnostic endoscopy

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  4 / 729 IBECS  
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Id: ET2-5393 IBECS-Express
Autor: Firdoose CS, Nyer.
Título: Concurrent 'coronoid foramen' with trifid mandibular canal in a live human: CBCT exploration of a unilateral variant
Fuente: Eur. j. anat;24(3):229-234, mayo 2020. tab, ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: The incidence of a coronoid foramen in a live human subject is rare and hence the scarcity of the literature. The knowledge of any such anatomi-cal variation is important, as surgical procedures on the mandible are regularly performed by dental as well as oral and maxillofacial surgeons. The current script details anomalous morphology of an isolated coronoid foramen in the mandible of a 16-year-old female Saudi patient, which is a first ever documented case along with the presence of two separate accessory mandibular canals encoun-tered during routine dental investigations. A high spatial resolution three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used as a di-agnostic investigative method so as to allow an accurate three-dimensional analysis of mandibular coronoid foramen and accessory mandibular canal variations. These variations were documented and a detailed review of literature done. The script fo-cuses on the variations themselves, and the clini-cal implications of the presence of such variations. A thorough understanding of anatomical variants in the mandible and their neurovascular contents al-ways determines the success of any procedural anesthesia, the prevention of surgical misadven-ture and the etiology of pathologic processes

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  5 / 729 IBECS  
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Id: ET2-5392 IBECS-Express
Autor: Ubelaker, Douglas H; Cordero, Quinnlan R; Linton, Nadia F.
Título: Recent research in Forensic Anthropology
Fuente: Eur. j. anat;24(3):221-227, mayo 2020. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: Examination of recently published articles in four leading journals featuring forensic anthropology reveals strong research interest in the estimation of age at death and sex, trauma analysis and vari-ous other techniques of analysis. The 782 articles examined document the dynamic and evolving nature of forensic anthropology and strong re-search interest in all of the major components of the field

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  6 / 729 IBECS  
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Id: ET2-5391 IBECS-Express
Autor: Chandee, Nichapha; Kruepunga, Nutmethee; Leckchaoum, Thanyarat; Thintharua, Pakpoom; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Asuvapongpatana, Somluk.
Título: Late administration of caffeine affects cardiac maturation in chick embryos: a combined two and threedimensional morphogenetic and gene analyses
Fuente: Eur. j. anat;24(3):211-220, mayo 2020. ilus, tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: Cardiac malformations are very prevalent and can be caused both by defective genes and envi-ronmental teratogens. Among the latter, caffeine causes malformations when exposed during early cardiac development, whereas its later effects are still unclear. We exposed three-day incubated (D3) chick embryos to 2 mg caffeine and analyzed them at D5, D7 and D9. The embryos were serially sec-tioned and analyzed two-dimensionally. Alternatively, the sections of D9 embryos were reconstructed three-dimensionally using Amira® software and analyzed volumetrically. The expres-sion of genes involved in endothelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) was studied by real-time PCR. Interestingly, caffeine treatment at D3 em-bryos did not induce cardiac malformations, but did delay growth, in particular that of the ventricles and ventricular trabeculae. Furthermore, it affected EMT in the endocardial cushion and atrioventricu-lar valves. Gene-expression analysis revealed that caffeine had a progressively deleterious effect on the expressions of GATA4, MMP2, SNAIL1, TWIST1, and VIMENTIN. The effect of late caf-feine administration on the chicken embryos would provide suggestive evident towards a possible heart developmental defect in humans, particularly heavy caffeine consumers during pregnancy

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  7 / 729 IBECS  
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Id: ET2-5390 IBECS-Express
Autor: Brown, Stephen HM; Nolan, Christopher PR; Zwambag, Derek P.
Título: Characteristics of sarcomere length operating ranges in the rat lumbar spine extensor muscles: comparison to human
Fuente: Eur. j. anat;24(3):205-210, mayo 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: Proper coordination and function of muscles is required to move and stabilize the spine. However, due to difficulty in sampling, few empirical data exist regarding the specific structural and architectural characteristics of spine muscles in humans. The use of animal models is an alternative; but comparisons between animal and human spine muscles are lacking. Therefore, ten adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were euthanized, skinned and immersion-fixed in formalin; six rats in a neutral spine position and four rats in a fully flexed spine position. Longissimus, iliocostalis and multifidus muscles were excised, individual fascicles were dissected and sarcomere lengths were measured via laser diffraction. Results demonstrat-ed that mean sarcomere lengths in the neutral position were 2.29 μm, 2.44 μm and 2.44 μm for the multifidus, longissimus and iliocostalis, respecti-vely. In the fully flexed posture, sarcomeres were lengthened to 2.79 μm, 2.92 μm and 2.91 μm, respectively. In the neutral spine posture, these mus-cles were closer to optimal length compared to those previously measured in humans. In the fullyflexed posture, these muscles exhibited similar relative lengths (on the descending limb of the force-length relationship) compared to those previously modeled in humans. In summary, rat spine extensor muscles have longer sarcomeres, relative to optimal length, in the neutral posture compared to human spine extensor muscles. However, in the fully flexed spine position, both rat and human spine muscles act on the descending limb of the force-length relationship, all at similar relative lengths. These data provide a context to guide the use of rat spine muscles as a model to understand structural and functional characteristics in the human

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  8 / 729 IBECS  
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Id: ET2-5389 IBECS-Express
Autor: Mosaku, Josiah T; Komolafe, Aderibigbe O; Owolabi, Rotimi A; Odukoya, Ayodeji S; Saka, Stephen O; Anjorin, Atinuke O.
Título: Effect of methanol seed extract of Buchholzia coriacea on the leftventricle myocardium ofzidovudine-induced cardiotoxic Wistar rats
Fuente: Eur. j. anat;24(3):193-203, mayo 2020. tab, ilus, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: The degenerative and inflammatory changes were reported in cardiac tissues of rats exposed to zidovudine (ZDV). This study was designed to ex-amine the histochemical changes in the myocardi-um of adult Wistar rats exposed to ZDV and ad-ministered with methanolic extract of Buchholzia coriacea (MEBC) seed. Forty-eight healthy Wistar rats weighing 150-155 g. were randomly assigned into eight groups of six rats each. Group A served as control and received distilled water; group B received 100 mg/kg of ZDV; group C received 600 mg/kg of MEBC; group D received 100 mg/kg of vitamin C; group E received 100 mg/kg of vitamin C and ZDV; group F received 150 mg/kg of MEBC and 100 mg/kg of ZDV; group G received 300 mg/kg of MEBC and 100 mg/kg of ZDV, and group H received 600 mg/kg of MEBC and 100 mg/kg of ZDV. Treatment lasted for a period of 56 days. Blood was collected separately into clean capped plain tubes for biochemical parameters. Heartswere excised, fixed in 10% formal saline and pro-cessed for histology. ZDV induced a significant increase in the serum concentration of Nitric Oxide (NO) and Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) in the ZDV-alone group when compared to control (p < 0.05). Also, there was reduction in activity of the Glutathi-one reductase (GR) enzyme in the ZDV-alone group relative to control (P = 0.0006, F = 7.0). Distor-tion of the cross banding pattern of cardiac muscle fibres in ZDV-alone group was manifested. These effects were reversed by administration of MEBC compared to vitamin C group

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  9 / 729 IBECS  
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Id: ET2-5388 IBECS-Express
Autor: Awad Hegazy, Abdelmonem; Abd Al Hameed, Enssaf Ahmad; Ibrahim El-Wafaey, Dalia; Khorshed, Ahmad.
Título: Potential role of Moringa Oleifera in alleviating paracetamol-induced nephrotoxicity in rat
Fuente: Eur. j. anat;24(3):171-191, mayo 2020. tab, graf, ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: The kidney plays a vital role in eliminating the toxic substances and drug metabolites from blood. Therefore, it is prone to hazards in case of abuse or overdose of drugs. The aim of the work was to clarify the impact of Moringa oleifera (MO) against the nephrotoxic effect of paracetamol in adult male albino rats. Twenty-eight adult male albino rats were used in this study and divided equally into four groups (G); G1 (control G), G2 (paracetamol-treated animals), G3 (paracetamol- plus high MO-treated G), G4 (high MO-treated rats). Kidney specimens were harvested after anesthetizing the animals, and then processed for histological and DNA comet analysis. Biochemical blood investiga-tions for kidney function were also performed through assessment of serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Administration of para-cetamol resulted in genotoxicity and marked bio-chemical and renal histological changes. It caused a significant increase in Cr and BUN levels and degeneration in both proximal and distal convolut-ed tubules with glomerular changes. Administration of MO with paracetamol led to a noticeable amelioration of previous mentioned changes. Moringa oleifera is suggested to be an effectivenephroprotection against paracetamol-induced damage. Further studies are recommended to con-firm the protective role of MO using large numbers of different animal models before investigating it in humans

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  10 / 729 IBECS  
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Id: ET2-5387 IBECS-Express
Autor: Van Le, Cuong; Talarico, Ernest F; Truong Nguyen, Ky.
Título: The size of intestines in Vietnamese adults
Fuente: Eur. j. anat;24(3):169-178, mayo 2020. ilus, tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: The length of the small intestine of the Westerner is about 5-9 m long, whereas data on the intestinal length of Vietnamese patients is lacking in the liter-ature. This study aims to determine the size of in-testines in Vietnamese and the difference between fixed cadavers, autopsies and in operative patients. There were 130 subjects examined in this study: intestine from 40 formalin fixed cadavers, 30 autopsies and 60 living patients. The cohort includ-ed 91 males and 39 females, with ages ranging from 18 to 75 years-old and origin from various social levels. Subjects were excluded from this study if there was current or prior GI disease, GI surgery, or any other abdominal surgery. The length of the duodenum was 24.3 ± 1.2 cm in for-malin fixed cadavers and 25.60 ± 1.4 cm in autop-sies. The length of the small intestine was 382.5 ± 45.5 cm in preserved cadavers, 442.3 ± 62.5 cm in autopsies and 556.2 ± 74.4 cm in operative pa-tients. The length of the large intestine was meas-ured to be 132.5 ± 17.6 cm in preserved subjects, 149.3 ± 12.1 cm in autopsies and 156.3 ± 14.5 cm in operative patients. The greatest diameter was the jejunum in autopsies, or 4.1 ± 0.37 cm, and the smallest diameter was the ileum in autopsies, or 2.5 ± 0.30 cm. In Vietnamese, the length of the intestine in surgical patients was the longest; in theformalin-preserved group was the shortest, and in autopsies group was in the average range. The length of the Vietnamese small intestine was short-er than that of the European and American sub-jects. Surgeons need to be aware of variations in intestine length so that resection resulting in small bowel syndrome can be anticipated or avoided

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