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Id: 2
Autor: Myers, Matthew A; Hall, Samuel R; Stephens, Jonny; Lowry, Andrew; Seaby, Eleanor; Parton, William; McElligott, Simon; Elmansouri, Ahmad; Harrison, Charlotte H; Parrott, Rachel; Border, Scott.
Título: The National Undergraduate Neuroanatomy Competition: Five years of educating, inspiring and motivating our future neurologists and neurosurgeons
Fuente: Eur. j. anat;22(2):183-193, mar. 2018. ilus, graf, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: Neurological conditions are common so a knowledge of neuroanatomy is necessary for junior doctors. Additionally, some students have a particular interest in neuroscience. However, little time is dedicated to neuroanatomy in the medical curriculum, and many students struggle with neuroanatomy. The National Undergraduate Neuroanatomy Competition (NUNC) aims to support the development of neuroanatomical knowledge among medical students and promote interest in neurosciences. Students who attended the NUNC completed a series of neuroanatomy-based examinations and a questionnaire investigating aspects of neuroanatomy teaching and resources at their home university. 387 students attended the NUNC between 2013 and 2017, of which 382 had a complete data set (response rate 98.7%). Male students significantly outperformed female students (p<0.0001) and clinical students outperformed pre-clinical students (p<0.05). Best answered questions were on the spine (average score 53.9%), and the most poorly answered questions were on the vasculature (average score 44.7%). Students felt that the neuroanatomy teaching, time spent on neuroanatomy and dissection/prosection resources were all reasonable (6-7/10) at their home institution. Elearning resources were rated more poorly (5.4/10). We conclude that the NUNC gives students the opportunity to enhance their neuroanatomical knowledge and gives keen students the chance to develop their interest (AU)

No disponible
Descriptores: neuroanatomía/educación
neuroanatomía/recursos humanos
educación médica/métodos
-neuroanatomía/organización & administración
neuroanatomía/normas
estudiantes de medicina/estadística & datos numéricos
encuestas y cuestionarios/utilización
Límites: humanos
masculino
femenino
Responsable: BNCS


  2 / 587 IBECS  
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Id: 2
Autor: Aka, Justine J; Cookson, Natalie E; Hafferty, Frederic W; Finn, Gabrielle M.
Título: Teaching by stealth: utilising the hidden curriculum through body painting within anatomy education
Fuente: Eur. j. anat;22(2):173-182, mar. 2018. tab, ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: This study considers the hidden curriculum within anatomy education, with a specific focus on body painting. Body painting is not only utilised within anatomy education for teaching surface anatomy and clinical examination, but also to provide a platform for the development of other skills, primarily through the hidden curriculum. The hidden curriculum is the unplanned curriculum transmitting tacit messages to students on values, attitudes, principles and organisation. This may lend itself to deliver values in line with General Medical Council UK registration requirements of 'safety and quality', 'communication', 'partnership and teamwork', and 'maintaining trust' in the undergraduate medical curriculum. This qualitative study explored faculty perceptions of the use of body painting as a teaching tool. The hidden curriculum appeared spontaneously as a major advantage of utilising painting. Four major themes emerged; trait development, socialisation, tacit learning and script formation. Anatomy education lends itself to an environment in which to study the hidden curriculum. Results from this study demonstrate faculty awareness of, and deliberate use of, the hidden curriculum as a method to 'teach by stealth', and therefore by actively employing the term pushing at the boundaries of the hidden curriculum concept (AU)

No disponible
Descriptores: anatomía/educación
anatomía/métodos
anatomía artística/educación
anatomía artística/instrumentación
educación médica/métodos
-Pinturas
anatomía artística/métodos
estudiantes de medicina/estadística & datos numéricos
Límites: humanos
masculino
femenino
Responsable: BNCS


  3 / 587 IBECS  
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Id: 2
Autor: Riederer, Beat M; Spinosa, Jean-Pierre; Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Caro, Raffaele de; McHanwell, Stephen; Moxham, Bernard.
Título: Clinically-Orientated Anatomy: Five exemplars to portray the concept
Fuente: Eur. j. anat;22(2):157-172, mar. 2018. ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: It has become almost a truism that, as for many biomedical sciences courses, gross anatomy tuition for healthcare curricula (including medicine and dentistry) should be integrated with clinical components to improve vocational relevance. Nevertheless, many fundamental questions remain to be answered relating to the content to be taught, who teaches the discipline, how the students react, and whether the students are prepared to integrate the clinical and biomedical components. We additionally need evidence of how the delivery of clinical content is influenced by technical developments such as medical imaging. This article documents some examples, or case scenarios, showing how interactions between professional anatomists and clinicians can be fostered, as well as providing illustrations of different teaching styles. From a review of the literature, as well as from our own experiences, we conclude that, for many branches of medicine, it is essential to have access to human bodies for both anatomical and clinical education and training and that postgraduate anatomical teaching remains important for a variety of specialities. We therefore support the notion that a close relationship between professional anatomists and surgeons can reinforce core anatomical knowledge by deepening the understanding of its clinical importance. Paradoxically, however, there is evidence that medical students do not believe that the teachers of anatomy should necessarily be clinically qualified. Furthermore, while students appreciate the value of using clinical examples, scenarios or case histories in anatomy teaching, they remain ambivalent about their use in assessments or examinations. This article also emphasises that anatomy is important both as a scientific and a clinical, translational discipline and argues that the discipline is crucial for appreciation of the human body, not just in disease, but also in health (AU)

No disponible
Descriptores: anatomía/educación
anatomía/métodos
educación odontológica/tendencias
educación médica/métodos
diafragma pélvico/anatomía & histología
neuroanatomía/educación
conservación de tejidos/instrumentación
-sacro/anatomía & histología
angiografía/instrumentación
angiografía/métodos
pelvis/anatomía & histología
venas/anatomía & histología
arterias/anatomía & histología
Límites: humanos
Responsable: BNCS


  4 / 587 IBECS  
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Id: 2
Autor: Camacho-Hernández, Carmen M; Perdigón-Alvarado, Estefanía; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine; Reyes-Suárez, Paula; Vera-Delgado, Víctor; Castañeyra-Ruiz, María; Martín-González, Candelaria; González-Reimers, Emilio.
Título: Digit ratios among the modern population of the Canary Islands
Fuente: Eur. j. anat;22(2):145-155, mar. 2018. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: Sexual differences in the index to ring finger length ratio (2D:4D ratio) have been observed since more than 150 years ago, and they are already present in the foetus. Homeobox genes, which also control the differentiation of testes and ovaries, are involved in finger conformation, which is subjected to the influence of testosterone and estrogen levels. In general, women show larger 2D:4D digit ratios, although differences between sexes are subjected to ethnic variations. This study was performed in order to analyse the absolute values of several digit ratios (2D:4D; 4D:3D; 2D:3D) among 164 young adults of Tenerife (101 women). Finger lengths were directly measured dorsally using a calliper with an accuracy level of 0.01 mm. Dorsal digit lengths were defined as the distance between the fingertip and the dorsal base of the proximal phalanx, in a position in which fingers and palms formed an angle of 90º. We found that 2D:4D of both hands (for instance, women=0.9631 ± 0.02647; men= 0.9535 ± 0.02507 for the left 2D:4D ratios), the left 2D:3D (0.9063 ± 0.02216 in women; 0.8980 ± 0.01931 among men) and the right 4D:3D ratios (0.9377 ± 0.03625 among women vs 0.9471 ± 0.02138 among men) were significantly different among men and women. The magnitude of the difference among sexes is similar to that reported for other populations, and they allow for the elaboration of a discriminant function with an accuracy of 60.4%, that reaches 86% if stature is also included. We applied this discriminant function to a test group composed of 36 randomly selected women and 24 men, obtaining an accuracy of 58.33% and 81.67%, respectively (AU)

No disponible
Descriptores: radio/utilización
características sexuales
índice de masa corporal
dedos/anatomía & histología
pesos y medidas corporales/utilización
dedos/crecimiento & desarrollo
determinación del sexo por el esqueleto/utilización
-peso por estatura/fisiología
columna vertebral/fisiología
análisis multifactorial
dedos/fisiología
modelos logísticos
antropometría
determinación del sexo por el esqueleto/métodos
Límites: humanos
masculino
femenino
adolescente
adulto joven
adulto
Responsable: BNCS


  5 / 587 IBECS  
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Id: 2
Autor: Soliman, Amro M; Lin, Teoh S; Ghafar, Norzana A; Das, Srijit.
Título: Virgin coconut oil and diabetic wound healing: histopathological and biochemical analysis
Fuente: Eur. j. anat;22(2):135-144, mar. 2018. graf, ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: Delayed wound healing (the diabetic ulcer) is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), which has shown an increasing trend over previous decades to affect almost 15% of diabetic patients. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is a natural oil rich in vitamins and antioxidants and possesses antimicrobial and antiviral activities. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of topical application of VCO on wound healing in diabetes-induced Sprague-Dawley rats. A total of 72 animals were divided into 4 groups: i.e. (i) non-diabetic nontreated (NN), (ii) diabetic non-treated (DN), (iii) diabetic treated with VCO (VCO), and (iv) diabetic treated with silver sulfadiazine cream (SS). Wounds were inflicted on all groups using punch biopsy needles, and the animals were treated for 14 days. Wound closure rate (WCR) was measured on day 5, 10, and 14. Histological analysis was performed on day 7 and 14. Total protein content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured on day 1, 7, and 14. WCR in VCO group was higher on all days compared to DN. Histological analysis revealed that VCO promoted re-epithelialization and increased collagen content of wound tissue. Total protein content in VCO group was higher on day 7 and 14 compared to both DN and SS groups. VCO showed insignificant effects on SOD levels. In summary, VCO was found to be better than silver sulfadiazine cream in the healing of diabetic wounds via promoting reepithelialization and collagen synthesize as well as increasing WCR and total protein content (AU)

No disponible
Descriptores: aceite de palma/métodos
cicatrización de heridas
heridas y lesiones/terapia
heridas y lesiones/veterinaria
úlcera del pie/patología
pie diabético/terapia
glucosa sanguínea/análisis
-heridas y lesiones/diagnóstico
heridas y lesiones/patología
ratas Sprague-Dawley/anatomía & histología
ratas Sprague-Dawley/metabolismo
sulfadiacina de plata/uso terapéutico
superóxido dismutasa/análisis
Límites: animales
ratas
Responsable: BNCS


  6 / 587 IBECS  
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Id: 2
Autor: Kharay, Sonia S; Sharma, Anu; Saggar, Kavita.
Título: 3D computed tomographic mapping of ossified transverse scapular ligaments and their relationship to coracoid, glenoid and acromion: Landmarks assisting safe release for suprascapular nerve decompression
Fuente: Eur. j. anat;22(2):127-134, mar. 2018. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: Operative treatment of suprascapular nerve (SSN) entrapment consists of decompression of the nerve by surgical release of superior transverse scapular ligament (STSL) and spinoglenoid ligament (SGL). The surgical explorations rely on the relationship of anatomic landmarks such as coracoid, glenoid and acromion to these ligaments. Anatomical data for the relationship of bony landmarks to ossified STSL and ossified SGL are deficient. The aim of our study was to quantify the radio-anatomic distances from ossified STSL and ossified SGL to bony landmarks. Multidetector CT (128-slice) scans of dry scapulae having ossified superior transverse scapular ligament (STSL) and ossified spinoglenoid ligament (SGL) were acquired. 3D volume rendered reconstruction of ossified suprascapular ligaments, and their distances from Coracoid, Glenoid and Acromion were recorded. In addition, morphometric parameters of unusual bony tunnels in the supraspinous fossa were documented. Twenty-seven dry scapulae having ossified transverse scapular ligaments and two scapulae having bony tunnels were evaluated. The length of ossified ligaments was 1.31-2.31 cm and width was 0.3-0.9 cm. The distances from lateral edge of ossified ligaments to Coracoid was 3.92-4.42cm, to Glenoid was 1.37-3.01cm and to Acromion was 4.43-5.92cm. Knowledge of the 3D morphometry of ossified transverse scapular ligaments described in this study will be helpful in planning their safe endoscopic and open resection. This study uniquely quantifies a rare variant of SGL and bony tunnels in supraspinous fossa (AU)

No disponible
Descriptores: escápula/anatomía & histología
escápula/diagnóstico por imagen
plexo braquial/anatomía & histología
plexo braquial/diagnóstico por imagen
acromion/anatomía & histología
ligamentos/anatomía & histología
-ligamentos/diagnóstico por imagen
inmunohistoquímica
artroscopios/utilización
tomografía computarizada radioisotópica/utilización
Límites: humanos
masculino
femenino
Responsable: BNCS


  7 / 587 IBECS  
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Id: 2
Autor: Keet, Kerri; Gunston, Geney; Alexander, Rachel.
Título: Variation in the anatomy of the ligamentum arteriosum in a South African simple
Fuente: Eur. j. anat;22(2):119-125, mar. 2018. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: The ligamentum arteriosum is a remnant of the ductus arteriosus, which connects the aortic arch and the pulmonary trunk during fetal life. Variation in the anatomy of the ligamentum arteriosum, its connections with the aorta and pulmonary trunk and the course of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve relative to the ligamentum arteriosum were investigated. Dissection of the superior mediastinum was performed on 40 cadavers. The anatomy of the ligamentum arteriosum and its relationship to the aortic arch, pulmonary trunk and left recurrent laryngeal nerve were documented. The dimensions of the ligamentum arteriosum were measured with a caliper. Ligamenta arteriosa in which presence of a lumen was suspected were examined histologically. Variation in the structure and size of the ligamenta arteriosa was found to be common. A 'line' on the luminal surface of the aorta at the attachment site of the ligamentum arteriosum was observed in 26%. A shallow fossa or depression was found on the luminal surface of the pulmonary trunk in all but one individual. The left recurrent laryngeal nerve was situated lateral to the ligamentum arteriosum in 97%. Variation in the anatomy of the ligamentum arteriosum was found to be common, whereas variation in the position of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve was rare. This information is relevant for surgeons to avoid accidental injury to variant structures. Remnants, in the form of 'lines' or depressions, of the anatomical association between the ductus arteriosus and the aorta and pulmonary trunk were present (AU)

No disponible
Descriptores: conducto arterial/anatomía & histología
aorta torácica/anatomía & histología
variación anatómica
nervio vago/anatomía & histología
nervios laríngeos/anatomía & histología
cadáver
-estudios transversales/métodos
mediastino/anatomía & histología
disección/utilización
Límites: humanos
masculino
femenino
adulto
mediana edad
anciano
ancianos de 80 o más años
Responsable: BNCS


  8 / 587 IBECS  
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Id: 2
Autor: Lee, Jae Chul.
Título: Therapeutic effect of sorafenib in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension rats
Fuente: Eur. j. anat;22(2):111-118, mar. 2018. ilus, graf, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: Sorafenib is an inhibitor of multi-kinases including tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of sorafenib, an inhibitor of multi-kinases, for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rat models. PAH was induced by subcutaneous (sc) injection of 60 mg/ kg monocrotaline (MCT) dissolved in 0.5 N HCl. Rats were assigned into the following groups: 1) control (C) group, 2) monocrotaline (M) group, and 3) sorafenib (S) group (MCT injection + sorafenib injection group). Rats in the treatment groups received a daily oral gavage of 2.5 mg/kg sorafenib for seven days. Our results showed that sorafenib treatment reduced systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) in PAH rats, and improved right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy, an indicator of RV pressure overload caused by elevated pulmonary artery pressure. In addition, the number of intraacinar arteries and medial wall thickening in pulmonary arterioles (an index of vascular remodeling) were decreased. Our results revealed that sorafenib reduced ventricular hypertrophy and the expression of fibrosis. These results support the notion that sorafenib improves the functional properties of RV, thereby highlighting its potential benefits for heart and lung impairment (AU)

No disponible
Descriptores: hipertensión pulmonar/inducido químicamente
hipertensión pulmonar/veterinaria
monocrotalina/uso terapéutico
proteína-tirosina cinasas/uso terapéutico
modelos de enfermedad en animales
-resultado del tratamiento
proteína-tirosina cinasas/antagonistas & inhibidores
ratas Sprague-Dawley/anatomía & histología
arteria pulmonar/anatomía & histología
arteria pulmonar/efectos de drogas
tejido conectivo/anatomía & histología
tejido conectivo/efectos de drogas
inmunotransferencia Western/utilización
inmunohistoquímica/métodos
Límites: animales
masculino
ratas
Responsable: BNCS


  9 / 587 IBECS  
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Id: 2
Autor: Corvalan, Claudio; Tang, Cynthia; Robinson, Marcus.
Título: Fabella and cyamella of the human knee joint: discovery by dissection and ultrasound examination
Fuente: Eur. j. anat;22(2):103-109, mar. 2018. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: Perhaps due to the lack of clinical relevance, several anatomical structures such as the fabella and cyamella of the knee have been overlooked or not included in anatomical textbooks, suggesting that they are not significant enough to be acknowledged. This occurs despite studies that have demonstrated recurrent presence of these particular structures. The purpose of the current study was to characterize the finding of two sesamoid bones from the human knee: the fabella and cyamella. The basis of this study used 111 knees of embalmed cadavers from 74 individuals from the donor bequest programme at The University of Sydney. Of these, 37 were paired knees and 37 were unilateral knees (39 female, 35 male). The mean age of the donors was 84 years (range 45- 97 years). Comparative analysis using ultrasound imaging was performed followed by dissection to confirm findings. Overall, 63 fabellae were found, with 60.8% of the cadavers having at least one fabella (65.7% in male and 56.4% in female). Three cyamellae were found in three donors respectively. Considering all cadavers, the incidence of cyamellae was 2.7%, making this an incidental finding rather than an anatomical variant. Due to the low prevalence, imaging diagnostic techniques may be useful in identifying these anatomical structures and characterising their variations in detail. Furthermore, they could provide an insight to these 'forgotten' structures and their potential roles in failure correlated with surgical techniques, misdiagnoses or prevalence of chronic pathologies of the knee (AU)

No disponible
Descriptores: articulación de la rodilla/anatomía & histología
disección/métodos
cadáver
huesos sesamoideos/anatomía & histología
huesos sesamoideos/diagnóstico por imagen
-donantes de tejidos
articulación de la rodilla/patología
tendones/anatomía & histología
menisco/anatomía & histología
menisco/diagnóstico por imagen
Límites: humanos
masculino
femenino
adulto
mediana edad
anciano
ancianos de 80 o más años
Responsable: BNCS


  10 / 587 IBECS  
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Id: 2
Autor: Tolba, Asmaa M; Mandour, Dalia A.
Título: Histological effects of bisphenol-A on the reproductive organs of the adult male albino rat
Fuente: Eur. j. anat;22(2):89-102, mar. 2018. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: Bisphenol-A (BPA) is widely used in the environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the histological reproductive toxicity of BPA in the adult male albino rats. Forty-five adult male albino rats were divided into 3 groups. Group I received normal saline orally daily (negative control); Group II received corn oil (0.5 ml/day) orally daily (positive control, and Group III were treated with BPA in a dose of 25 mg/kg B.W dissolved in corn oil for 30 days orally. Specimens from the testis, epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicles were collected for light microscopic examination. Blood samples were collected for serum testosterone level assessment. BPA caused histopathological alterations in the epithelium and connective tissues of all organs. Results of the serum testosterone level statistical analysis showed a highly significant decrease in BPA-treated group (III) as compared to the control groups (I & II). The epithelium of the accessory sex glands (prostate and seminal vesicles) responds to BPA by proliferative differentiation. The mean area percentage of collagen fibers stained with Masson's trichrome measured in the stroma of all organs was significantly increased. Also, there was a significant increase in the area percentage of positive inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) immunoreactions in all organs. In conclusion, BPA induced DNA oxidative damage via iNOS activity in all reproductive organs (AU)

No disponible
Descriptores: bisfenol A glicidil metacrilato/uso terapéutico
fenómenos fisiológicos de la reproducción/efectos de drogas
testículo/anatomía & histología
próstata/anatomía & histología
vesículas seminales/anatomía & histología
-bisfenol A glicidil metacrilato/toxicidad
testículo/efectos de drogas
próstata/efectos de drogas
vesículas seminales/efectos de drogas
diseño de la investigación
inmunohistoquímica/utilización
inmunohistoquímica/veterinaria
análisis de la varianza
ratas Wistar/anatomía & histología
Límites: animales
masculino
ratas
Responsable: BNCS



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