Base de datos : IBECS
Búsqueda : "1138-7416" [ISSN]
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Id: 190214
Autor: Jiménez-Ros, Antonia María; Carmona-Márquez, José; Pascual, Luís Miguel.
Título: Pathological worry in Portugal: the Portuguese version of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ)
Fuente: Span. j. psychol;22:e63.1-e63.8, 2019. tab.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.1017/sjp.2019.61.
Resumen: Worry is a common phenomenon with people who anticipate and want to be prepared for future events. Pathological worry, however, is not limited to anticipating potentially dangerous events, but it is applied to small daily events, too. This kind of worry is perceived as uncontrollable, and it is strongly associated with catastrophism. The Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) was developed to assess pathological worry. Despite its excellent psychometric characteristics, its internal structure is still controversial. The combination of regular and reversed items and certain methodological considerations may account for the discrepancies in the results of previous investigations. With the aim to analyze worry in Portugal and the psychometric properties of the PSWQ, for the present study, methodological options were considered in order to minimize previous problems. A sample of 558 Portuguese community participants took part in this study. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were performed with two independent random subsamples. The results showed the unidimensionality of PSWQ and the psychometric adequacy of both the full, 16-item version and a reduced, 11-item version (without reversed scored items). Normative data are presented, the suitability of both versions is discussed, and the authors conclude by encouraging the use of the reduced, 11-item version of the PSWQ in applied settings

No disponible
Descriptores: ansiedad/diagnóstico
escalas de valoración psiquiátrica/normas
psicometría/normas
-encuestas y cuestionarios
Portugal
Límites: seres humanos
masculino
femenino
persona de mediana edad
Responsable: BNCS


  2 / 1199 IBECS  
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Id: 190213
Autor: Moghadasin, Maryam.
Título: Prediction of anger expression of individuals with psychiatric disorders using the developed computational codes based on the various soft computing algorithms
Fuente: Span. j. psychol;22:e62.1-e62.14, 2019. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.1017/sjp.2019.59.
Resumen: Anger is defined as a psychobiological emotional state that consists of feelings varying in intensity from mild irritation or annoyance to intense fury and rage. Dysfunction in anger regulation is marker of most psychiatric disorders. The most important point about anger regulation by the individuals is how to express anger and control it. The purpose of the present study is to predict the anger expression from the anger experience in individuals with psychiatric disorder for assessment of how to express and control the anger. To this end, the number of 3,000 subjects of individuals with clinical disorders had filled in the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-II (STAXI-II). After removing the uncertain diagnoses (900 subjects), the number of 2,100 data was considered in the analysis. Then, the computational codes based on three soft computing algorithms, including Radial Basis Function (RBF), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Decision Tree (DT) were developed to predict the scales of anger expression of the individuals with psychiatric disorders. The scales of anger experience were used as input data of the developed computational codes. Comparison between the results obtained from the DT, RBF and ANFIS algorithms show that all the developed soft computing algorithms forecast the anger expression scales with an acceptable accuracy. However, the accuracy of the DT algorithm is better than the other algorithms

No disponible
Descriptores: algoritmos
ira/fisiología
emoción expresada/fisiología
trastornos mentales/fisiopatología
personalidad/fisiología
inventario de personalidad
escalas de valoración psiquiátrica
Límites: seres humanos
masculino
femenino
adulto
Responsable: BNCS


  3 / 1199 IBECS  
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Id: 190212
Autor: Arikewuyo, Abdulgaffar; Ozad, Bahire; Lasisi, Taiwo Temitope.
Título: Erotic use of social media pornography in gratifying romantic relationship desires
Fuente: Span. j. psychol;22:e61.1-e61.10, 2019. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.1017/sjp.2019.60.
Resumen: The advent of social media platforms has revolutionized the process of information creation, dissemination and consumption. Although highly debated, pornography consumption on social media is a reality. Building on an acquisition, activation, and application model, this study investigates student's (n = 379) gratification in romantic relationships as an outcome of their pornography consumption on social media, through the mediating effect of sexual confidence and sexual compulsivity. PROCESS macro was used to analyze the data. Results indicate that the effect of pornography consumption on a viewer's gratification in a romantic relationship is partially mediated by sexual confidence (β = .0461, p < .001) and sexual compulsivity (β = .420, p < .001). These findings hold important contributions to current literature. Findings also indicate that pornography consumption positively and significantly aids a viewer's sexual gratification in romantic relationships

No disponible
Descriptores: literatura erótica
relaciones interpersonales
satisfacción personal
conducta sexual/psicología
parejas sexuales/psicología
redes sociales
Límites: seres humanos
masculino
femenino
adulto joven
adulto
Responsable: BNCS


  4 / 1199 IBECS  
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Id: 190211
Autor: Regenwetter, Michel; Robinson, Maria M.
Título: Tutorial: nuisance or substance? leveraging heterogeneity of preferences
Fuente: Span. j. psychol;22:e60.1-e60.20, 2019. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.1017/sjp.2019.50.
Resumen: Psychology and neighboring disciplines are currently consumed with a replication crisis. Recent work has shown that replication can have the unintended consequence of perpetuating unwarranted conclusions when repeating an incorrect line of scientific reasoning from one study to another. This tutorial shows how decision researchers can derive logically coherent predictions from their theory by keeping track of the heterogeneity of preference the theory permits, rather than dismissing such heterogeneity as a nuisance. As an illustration, we reanalyze data of Barron and Ursino (2013). By keeping track of the heterogeneity of preferences permitted by Cumulative Prospect Theory, we show how the analysis and conclusions of Barron and Ursino (2013) change. This tutorial is intended as a blue-print for graduate student projects that dig deeply into the merits of prior studies and/or that supplement replication studies with a quality check

No disponible
Descriptores: interpretación estadística de los datos
teoría psicológica
psicología
diseño de la investigación
-psicología/métodos
psicología/normas
diseño de la investigación/normas
Límites: seres humanos
Responsable: BNCS


  5 / 1199 IBECS  
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Id: 190210
Autor: Rubio-Garay, Fernando; Amor, Pedro J; Carrasco, Miguel A.
Título: The contribution of moral disengagement to dating violence and general aggression: the gender and age moderating effects
Fuente: Span. j. psychol;22:e59.1-e59.10, 2019. tab.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.1017/sjp.2019.57.
Resumen: The main aims of this study were, first to analyze the partial effects of specific mechanisms of moral disengagement (MMD) on different manifestations of general aggression and dating violence (DV) in adolescents and youths; second, to explore the moderating effects of gender and age on these relations. Moral disengagement, and different forms of aggression and DV, were evaluated in a sample of 424 participants (61.1% women) aged 15 to 25 years (M = 18.80; SD = 2.69). Pearson correlations and different hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. All regressions were controlled by social desirability. MMD contributed to physical aggression with a medium effect size (R2 = .22) and verbal aggression with a small effect size (R2 = .10). Conversely, MMD did not appear to clearly contribute to DV. In conclusion, depersonalization and rationalization were the most important MMD for physical aggression, rationalization for verbal aggression, and irresponsibility for verbal-emotional violence in dating relationships. Moreover, the relationships between physical aggression and rationalization mechanism were significantly moderated by gender: there appears to be a stronger relationship between rationalization and physical aggression in boys than in girls. Moderating effects of age on these relations were not found

No disponible
Descriptores: agresión/psicología
despersonalización/psicología
relaciones interpersonales
violencia contra la pareja/psicología
principios morales
pensamiento
-factores etarios
factores sexuales
deseabilidad social
Límites: seres humanos
masculino
femenino
adolescente
adulto joven
adulto
Responsable: BNCS


  6 / 1199 IBECS  
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Id: 190209
Autor: Morales, Carlos; Masuda, Aline D; Holtschlag, Claudia.
Título: The why and how of entrepreneurial action: an integrative model based on individual values and action theory
Fuente: Span. j. psychol;22:e58.1-e58.11, 2019. graf.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.1017/sjp.2019.62.
Resumen: Although individual values have been scarcely studied in the entrepreneurship literature, existing research provides evidence that they are relevant for understanding entrepreneurial behavior. Values, however, do not necessarily influence action in a direct way. Instead, they may indirectly predict behavior via more proximal psychological processes. We build upon previous research in entrepreneurship values using Schwartz (1992) individual-values theory and Frese's (2007) entrepreneurial action theory, and propose a theoretical model in which individual values have an indirect effect on entrepreneurial behavior through a series of four ulterior cognitive processes: Goal setting and intentions, mapping of information about the environment, planning and monitoring of the execution, and feedback processing. In doing so we integrate the theory of individual values with entrepreneurial cognition research. Despite their complementarity, these two theoretical approaches have not been studied together before. In this way, we offer new insights on the way individual values can explain entrepreneurial action. Based on these two lines of research we additionally propose a research agenda

No disponible
Descriptores: emprendimiento
modelos psicológicos
teoría psicológica
conducta social
valores sociales
Límites: seres humanos
Responsable: BNCS


  7 / 1199 IBECS  
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Id: 190208
Autor: Park, Sanghyuk; Davis-Stober, Clintin P; Snyder, Hope K; Messner, William; Regenwetter, Michel.
Título: Cognitive aging and tests of rationality
Fuente: Span. j. psychol;22:e57.1-e57.14, 2019. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.1017/sjp.2019.52.
Resumen: We investigated whether older adults are more likely than younger adults to violate a foundational property of rational decision making, the axiom of transitive preference. Our experiment consisted of two groups, older (ages 60-75; 21 participants) and younger (ages 18-30; 20 participants) adults. We used Bayesian model selection to investigate whether individuals were better described via (transitive) weak order-based decision strategies or (possibly intransitive) lexicographic semiorder decision strategies. We found weak evidence for the hypothesis that older adults violate transitivity at a higher rate than younger adults. At the same time, a hierarchical Bayesian analysis suggests that, in this study, the distribution of decision strategies across individuals is similar for both older and younger adults

No disponible
Descriptores: envejecimiento cognitivo/psicología
toma de decisión
-factores etarios
Límites: seres humanos
masculino
femenino
adolescente
adulto joven
adulto
persona de mediana edad
anciano
Responsable: BNCS


  8 / 1199 IBECS  
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Texto Completo
Id: 190207
Autor: García-Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío.
Título: The do's and don'ts of psychophysical methods for interpretability of psychometric functions and their descriptors
Fuente: Span. j. psychol;22:e56.1-e56.30, 2019. graf.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.1017/sjp.2019.49.
Resumen: Many areas of research require measuring psychometric functions or their descriptors (thresholds, slopes, etc.). Data for this purpose are collected with psychophysical methods of various types and justification for the interpretation of results arises from a model of performance grounded in signal detection theory. Decades of research have shown that psychophysical data display features that are incompatible with such framework, questioning the validity of interpretations obtained under it and revealing that psychophysical performance is more complex than this framework entertains. This paper describes the assumptions and formulation of the conventional framework for the two major classes of psychophysical methods (single- and dual-presentation methods) and presents various lines of empirical evidence that the framework is inconsistent with. An alternative framework is then described and shown to account for all the characteristics that the conventional framework regards as anomalies. This alternative process model explicitly separates the sensory, decisional, and response components of performance and represents them via parameters whose estimation characterizes the corresponding processes. Retrospective and prospective evidence of the validity of the alternative framework is also presented. A formal analysis also reveals that some psychophysical methods and response formats are unsuitable for separation of the three components of observed performance. Recommendations are thus given regarding practices that should be avoided and those that should be followed to ensure interpretability of the psychometric function, or descriptors (detection threshold, difference limen, point of subjective equality, etc.) obtained with shortcut methods that do not require estimation of psychometric functions

No disponible
Descriptores: teoría psicológica
psicometría
psicofísica
-psicometría/métodos
psicometría/normas
psicofísica/métodos
psicofísica/normas
Límites: seres humanos
Responsable: BNCS


  9 / 1199 IBECS  
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Id: 190206
Autor: Pothos, Emmanuel M; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Yearsley, James M.
Título: Perspectives on correctness in probabilistic inference from psychology
Fuente: Span. j. psychol;22:e55.1-e55.12, 2019. ilus, graf.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.1017/sjp.2019.48.
Resumen: Research into decision making has enabled us to appreciate that the notion of correctness is multifaceted. Different normative framework for correctness can lead to different insights about correct behavior. We illustrate the shifts for correctness insights with two tasks, the Wason selection task and the conjunction fallacy task; these tasks have had key roles in the development of logical reasoning and decision making research respectively. The Wason selection task arguably has played an important part in the transition from understanding correctness using classical logic to classical probability theory (and information theory). The conjunction fallacy has enabled a similar shift from baseline classical probability theory to quantum probability. The focus of this overview is the latter, as it represents a novel way for understanding probabilistic inference in psychology. We conclude with some of the current challenges concerning the application of quantum probability theory in psychology in general and specifically for the problem of understanding correctness in decision making

No disponible
Descriptores: toma de decisión
teoría de la información
lógica
teoría de la probabilidad
teoría psicológica
teoría cuántica
Límites: seres humanos
Tipo de Publicación: revisión
Responsable: BNCS


  10 / 1199 IBECS  
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Id: 190205
Autor: Diederich, Adele; Zhao, Wenjia Joyce.
Título: A dynamic dual process model of intertemporal choice
Fuente: Span. j. psychol;22:e54.1-e54.13, 2019. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.1017/sjp.2019.53.
Resumen: Dual process theories of decision making describe choice as the result of an automatic System 1, which is quick to activate but behaves impulsively, and a deliberative System 2, which is slower to activate but makes decisions in a rational and controlled manner. However, most existent dual process theories are verbal descriptions and do not generate testable qualitative and quantitative predictions. In this paper, we describe a formalized dynamic dual process model framework of intertemporal choice that allows for precise, experimentally testable predictions regarding choice probability and response time distributions. The framework is based on two-stage stochastic process models to account for the two postulated systems and to capture the dynamics and uncertainty involved in decision making. Using quasi closed form solutions, we illustrate how different factors (timing of System 1, time constraint, and preferences in both systems), which are reflected in the model parameters, influence qualitative and quantitative model predictions. Furthermore, we show how an existing static-deterministic model on intertemporal choice can be implemented in the framework allowing for testable predictions. The proposed framework can bring novel insights into the processes underlying intertemporal choices

No disponible
Descriptores: descuento por demora
modelos psicológicos
tiempo de reacción
incertidumbre
-factores de tiempo
Límites: seres humanos
Responsable: BNCS



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