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Id: ET1-2741 IBECS-Express
Autor: Tran, Van De; Dorofeeva, Valeria Valeryevna; Loskutova, Ekaterina Efimovna.
Título: Development and validation of a scale to measure the quality of patient medication counseling using Rasch model
Fuente: Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet);16(4):0-0, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.18549/PharmPract.2018.04.1327.
Resumen: Objective: The purpose of this study is to develop and validate the psychometric properties of a scale for measuring the quality of patient medication counseling by using the Rasch model. Methods: In this study, the scale was developed based on the literature review. It consisted of 31 items across five subscales: introduction, problem identification, content, behavior, and conclusion. A convenient sample of community pharmacists was recruited from four major cities in Vietnam: Hanoi, Da Nang, Ho Chi Minh, and Can Tho. Data collection was conducted from June 10 to October 30, 2017. A Rasch analysis for polytomous data was performed to assess the suitability of the item and the reliability of the scale. Results: The research results showed that all items had a positive point-measure correlation coefficient between 0.47 and 0.77. All items had infit and outfit values in the optimal range between 0.5 and 1.5 except for D5, but its value was within acceptable range. Differential item function analysis indicated that all items had no DIF, except for items B4 and E4 containing moderate magnitude of DIF. Response category statistics found that there was a gradual increase in difficulty level from category 1 to 5 and no presence of reversal. Infit and outfit statistics of these categories were also considered good, with their values close to 1. The test result of the item characteristic curve and the person-item map showed that there were some overlapping items. Their appearance, however, might play an important role in measuring different aspects of construct. The overall scale reliability index (0.97) was high and the overall scale separation index (6.11) was good. Conclusions: The developed scale satisfied the requirements of the Rasch model. The scale is a useful tool that could be used to measure the quality of patient medication counseling among community pharmacists

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  2 / 486 IBECS  
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Id: ET1-2740 IBECS-Express
Autor: Ibrahim, Inas Rifaat; Palaian, Subish; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed.
Título: Assessment of diarrhea treatment and counseling in community pharmacies in Baghdad, Iraq: A simulated patient study
Fuente: Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet);16(4):0-0, oct.-dic. 2018. tab.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.18549/PharmPract.2018.04.1313.
Resumen: Background: Because community pharmacists are the most accessible healthcare professionals, they are often involved in managing minor ailments within the community setting. Objective: This study evaluated the community pharmacists' history taking practice, medicine dispensing and advice in response to acute diarrhea. Methods: Authors conducted a simulated-patient study in 75 community pharmacies in Baghdad, Iraq from February to May 2015. The female simulated-patient complained of acute diarrhea that had lasted for one day and requested for medicine to treat her condition. After exiting each pharmacy, she then assessed the practices of the community pharmacists through the use of a specially designed checklist adopted with modifications from relevant guidelines. For history taking, a maximum total of eight was the highest obtainable score. Data collected was quantitatively analyzed and Mann-Whitney, Chi-square or Fishers exact tests were used at an alpha level of 0.05. Results: All of the 75 pharmacies visited were managed by professionally qualified pharmacists. The most common questions asked during history taking were number of diarrheal episodes (n=62; 82.7%); duration of symptoms (n=59; 78.7%) and presence of other diseases and if any drug had been taken (n=58; 77.3%). Female pharmacists had a higher total mean score (6.45, SD=1.33) for history taking when compared to their male counterparts (4.34, SD=2.13); p <0.001. Medicine combination of diphenoxylate HCl 2.5mg + atropine sulphate 0.025mg (n=34; 27.9%) was most frequently dispensed while the least was oral rehydration salt (n=1; 0.8%). Around 20% (n=15) of pharmacists dispensed antimicrobial agents. Over half (n=46; 61.3%) of pharmacists indicated the frequency of use on the medicine packet. Conversely, less than half (n=33; 44.0%) gave any advice on food and fluid intake. Conclusions: Majority of the community pharmacists asked at least four questions while taking patient history and was very likely to recommend antidiarrheal medicines as first line treatment options. The authors recommend the development of a minimum standard of practice as well as enhanced training for Iraqi community pharmacists

Resumen en ingles
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  3 / 486 IBECS  
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Id: ET1-2739 IBECS-Express
Autor: Isenor, Jennifer E; Slayter, Kathryn L; Halperin, Donna M; McNeil, Shelly A; Bowles, Susan K.
Título: Pharmacists' immunization experiences, beliefs, and attitudes in New Brunswick, Canada
Fuente: Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet);16(4):0-0, oct.-dic. 2018. tab.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.18549/PharmPract.2018.04.1310.
Resumen: Background: The expansion of pharmacist scope of practice to include provision of immunizations has occurred or is being considered in various countries. There are limited data evaluating the experiences of Canadian pharmacists in their role as immunizers. Objective: To describe the experiences of pharmacists in the Canadian province of New Brunswick as immunizers, including vaccines administered and perceived barriers and facilitators to providing immunizations. Methods: An anonymous, self-administered, web-based questionnaire was offered via email by the New Brunswick Pharmacists' Association to all its members. The survey tool was adapted, with permission, from a tool previously used by the American Pharmacists Association and validated using content validity and test-retest reproducibility. Pharmacist reported immunization activities and perceived facilitators and barriers to providing immunization services were assessed. Results: Responses from 168 (response rate of 26%) were evaluable. Approximately 90% of respondents worked in community practice full time, 65% were female and 44% were practicing for 20 or more years. Greater than 75% reported administering: hepatitis A and B, influenza, and zoster vaccines. The majority of respondents felt fully accepted (agreed or strongly agreed) as immunization providers by patients, local physicians, and the provincial health department (97%, 70%, and 78%, respectively). Most commonly reported barriers were: lack of a universally funded influenza immunization program, insufficient staffing and space, and concerns around reimbursement for services. Conclusions: Pharmacists in New Brunswick, Canada are actively participating in the provision of a variety of immunizations and felt fully supported by patients and other healthcare providers. Barriers identified may provide insight to other jurisdictions considering expanding the role of pharmacists as immunizers

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  4 / 486 IBECS  
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Id: ET1-2738 IBECS-Express
Autor: Luit, Charlotte DE van der; Jong, Iris R de; Ebbens, Marieke M; Euser, Sjoerd; Verweij, Sjoerd L; Bemt, Patricia M van den; Luttikhuis, Hanneke M; Becker, Matthijs L.
Título: Frequency of occurrence of medication discrepancies and associated risk factors in cases of acute hospital admission
Fuente: Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet);16(4):0-0, oct.-dic. 2018. tab.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.18549/PharmPract.2018.04.1301.
Resumen: Background: Medication discrepancies are a common occurrence following hospital admission and carry the potential for causing harm. However, little is known about the potential risk factors involved in medication discrepancies. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine how frequently medication discrepancies occur and their associated risk factors, in patients hospitalized via the emergency department of the Spaarne Gasthuis Hospital, located in The Netherlands. Methods: This retrospective observational study examines 832 hospital admissions which took place between April 1st and June 30th, 2015. Medication reconciliation was performed within 24 hours of admission and medication discrepancies were registered. The primary outcome recorded in the study was the proportion of patients experiencing one or more medication discrepancies, as verified by the physician. As a secondary outcome, the association between these discrepancies and pre-specified variables was analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: At least one medication discrepancy was found to have occurred with 97 of the 832 patients (11.7%), the most common discrepancies involving incorrect drug dose (44.9%) and omission of medication (36.4%). In the univariate analysis, age (OR=1.03 [95% CI 1.02:1.04] p<0.001) and number of pre-admission medications taken (OR=1.13 [95%CI 1.09:1.17] p<0.001) were revealed to be significantly associated with the risk of medication discrepancies. Sex, type of medical specialty, and surgical versus non-surgical specialty were found not to be significantly associated with discrepancies. In the multivariate analysis, both the number of pre-admission medications (OR=1.10 [95%CI 1.06:1.15] p<0.001) and age (OR=1.02 [95%CI 1.01:1.03] p=0.004) were independently associated with the risk of medication discrepancy. Conclusions: Of the total number of patients, 11.7% experienced one or more medication discrepancies following admission to the hospital. Elderly patients taking multiple drugs were found to be particularly at risk

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  5 / 486 IBECS  
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Id: ET1-2737 IBECS-Express
Autor: Olsson, Erika; Svensberg, Karin; Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle; Carlsson, Emma; Hällkvist, Caroline; Kaae, Susanne; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark.
Título: Swedish patients' trust in the bioequivalence of interchangeable generics. What factors are important for low trust?
Fuente: Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet);16(4):0-0, oct.-dic. 2018. tab.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.18549/PharmPract.2018.04.1298.
Resumen: Background: Generic substitution (GS), is a cost-containment strategy meant to contain pharmaceutical expenditure without compromising health objectives. In order to shape GS into a policy that is both efficient and safe it is crucial to understand which factors are most important for patients' trust in GS. Objective: To assess Swedish patients' level of trust in the bioequivalence of cheap and expensive generic medicines, and the association between trust and various factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Questionnaires were handed out at 12 community pharmacies in Sweden, selected through stratified sampling, between March and April 2015. The questionnaire included seven socio-demographic questions in addition to 18 items divided into three sections: the 'views on generic medicine'-scale, information on and prior experiences of GS, financial aspects and change of color/name. Odds Ratios (ORs) were estimated applying adjusted logistic regression analyses with trust in the bioequivalence of generic medicines used as outcome variable and various factors as predictors. Results: A total of 719 patients participated (response rate 85.7%). The results show that 70.7% of the respondents' trust that cheap and expensive interchangeable generic medicines are equal. Of the respondents 36.0% considered the change in appearance and 40.8% the change in names to complicate adherence. Lower trust in the bioequivalence of generic medicines were associated with being female (aOR=1.82, 95%CI 1.20:2.75, p<0.01), patients perceiving that changes in product name and appearance make adherence more complicated (aOR=2.18, 95%CI 1.48:3.19, p<0.001), disagreeing in that GS saves money for me (the customer) (aOR=2.68, 95%CI 1.58:4.55, p<0.001) or that GS saves money for society (aOR=3.21, 95%CI 1.46:7.08, p<0.01). Conclusions: Seven out of ten respondents had trust in the bioequivalence of generic medicines, and one in three considered GS to complicate adherence. Four factors were associated with lower trust in GS, i.e. female gender, agreeing that changes in product name and appearance complicates adherence, disagreeing in that GS saves money for me or disagreeing in that GS saves money for the society. Low trust in GS needs to be addressed, not least in the communication between health professionals and patients

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Id: ET1-2736 IBECS-Express
Autor: Mroueh, Lara; Ayoub, Dana; El-Hajj, Maya; Awada, Sanaa; Rachidi, Samar; Zein, Salam; Al-Hajje, Amal.
Título: Evaluation of medication adherence among Lebanese diabetic patients
Fuente: Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet);16(4):0-0, oct.-dic. 2018. tab.
Idioma: es.
doi: 10.18549/PharmPract.2018.04.1291.
Resumen: Background: Diabetes type 2 is considered one of the main public health concerns. Lack of adherence to treatment leads to poor therapeutic outcome, poor glycemic control, and high risk for developing diabetes complications. Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate adherence to oral antidiabetic medication in Diabetes type 2 Lebanese patients, and to evaluate factors leading to low adherence. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in outpatients endocrinology clinics of two hospitals and four private clinics located in Beirut-Lebanon. Data was collected using a well-structured questionnaire by trained pharmacists. Adherence level was measured by the Lebanese Medication Adherence Scale (LMAS-14). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using SPSS version 20. Results: Overall, 245 patients were included in the study with the majority being females (54.3%) and obese (47.8%). Only 29% of the participants had controlled glycemia (HbA1c <7%) with 31.8% of subjects had high adherence to their medication compared to 68.2% with low adherence. Increased working hours/day was associated with a decrease in adherence to oral antidiabetic medication (OR=0.31; 95% CI 0.11:0.88; p=0.029). Other factors significantly associated with decreased adherence to treatment were forgetfulness, high drug costs, complex treatment regimens, experiencing side effects, and perception of treatment inefficacy. Postponing physician office visits also decreased the probability of being adherent to oral antidiabetic medication (OR=0.36; 95% CI 0.15:0.86; p=0.022). Skipping or doubling the dose in case of hypo/hyperglycemia and the sensation of treatment burden also decreased medication adherence (OR=0.09; 95% CI 0.02:0.34; p=0.001, and OR=0.04; 95% CI 0.01:0.13; p<0.001 respectively). Conclusions: Adherence to oral antidiabetic medication is low for Lebanese patients, which leads to a poor glycemic control and increases the diabetes complications. Intervention programs including patient education strategies are essential to improve medication adherence

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  7 / 486 IBECS  
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Id: ET1-2735 IBECS-Express
Autor: Lawson, Katherine A; Vinluan, Celeste M; Oganesyan, Aida; Gonzalez, Eugenia C; Loya, Amanda; Strate, Justin Jonathan.
Título: A retrospective analysis of prescription medications as it correlates to falls for older adults
Fuente: Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet);16(4):0-0, oct.-dic. 2018. tab.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.18549/PharmPract.2018.04.1283.
Resumen: Objectives: To determine the correlation between falls and two medication factors: the class of medications and potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) prescribed to community-dwelling older adults aged 55 and older. Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional study. Home health patients residing in a Texas/Mexico border community and reporting at least one fall within the past month. Medication use, medication classification, and potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) recorded by level of falls; non-fallers and recurrent fallers. Results: Of 99 participants, 13.1% reported falling once and 86.9% reported two or more falls. Participant's average number of medications used was 10.51 (SD 5.75) with 93.9% having four or more prescribed medications. Average number of PIMs prescribed per participant was 1.42 (SD 1.51) with at least one PIM prescribed to 65.6% of participants. Twenty three out of 83 identified classes of prescribed medications met criteria for the study's analyses but resulted in no significant association to falls when comparing NF to RF. Agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system and lipid modifying agents were the most frequently prescribed medication classes (N=55, 55.6%). Ibuprofen was the PIM most frequently prescribed (n=13, 13.1%). The correlation between use of a prescribed PIM and number of falls was not statistically significant (p=0.128). Conclusions: There was no correlation between classes of medication and level of falls. Recurrent fallers were more likely to have been prescribed a PIM than non-fallers (not significant). Although the analyses conducted for this study did not result in statistical significance, the high prevalence of polypharmacy and prescribed PIMs observed in these participants warrants a thorough review of medications to reduce fall risks among older adults

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  8 / 486 IBECS  
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Id: ET1-2734 IBECS-Express
Autor: Prado, Fernanda Oliveira; Rocha, Kérilin Santos Stancine; Araújo, Dyego Carlos Souza Anacleto; Cunha, Luiza Correia; Marques, Tatiane Cristina; Lyra Junior, Divaldo Pereira De.
Título: Evaluation of students' attitudes towards pharmacist-physician collaboration in Brazil
Fuente: Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet);16(4):0-0, oct.-dic. 2018. tab.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.18549/PharmPract.2018.04.1277.
Resumen: Objective: To measure undergraduate pharmacy and medical students' collaborative attitudes regarding Pharmacist-Physician collaboration. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from September 2016 to February 2017 in Northeast Brazil. Pharmacy and medical students from the first and the last year of courses were invited to complete Portuguese version of Scale of Attitudes Toward Pharmacist-Physician Collaboration (SATP2C). Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed using IBM SPSS (22 version). Differences were considered significant when p<0.05. Results: Three hundred seventy students completed the SATP2C. Overall, the students had positive attitudes towards physician-pharmacist collaboration. There was no significant correlation between age and score (p=0.79). Women showed a more positive collaborative attitude than men (53.1, SD=6.8 vs. 55.1, SD=6.3). Pharmacy students had a higher score than medical students (57.5, SD=4.7, vs. 51.1, SD=6.4). The first-year medical students had a higher score than last-year medical students (52.3, SD=6.0 vs. 49.5, SD=6.6; p<0.007). There was no significant difference in the attitudes between the first and last year pharmacy students (p<0.007). Conclusions: Pharmacy and medical students showed positive attitudes towards physician-pharmacist collaboration. However, pharmacy students presented more collaborative attitudes than medical ones. Additionally, the first-year medical students had more collaborative attitudes than last-year medical students. Studies should be conducted to provide recommendations to improve interprofessional education efforts to further enhance the positive attitudes toward physician-pharmacist collaboration

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  9 / 486 IBECS  
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Id: ET1-2733 IBECS-Express
Autor: Sendall, Marguerite C; Ostermann, Liz; Brown, Carolyn; McCosker, Laura.
Título: Health promotion of bowel cancer and breast cancer screening in community pharmacies: Pharmacists' perceptions of their role, knowledge and confidence
Fuente: Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet);16(4):0-0, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.18549/PharmPract.2018.04.1275.
Resumen: Objectives: To identify community pharmacists' perceptions of their role, knowledge and confidence in relation to bowel cancer and breast cancer screening health promotion. Methods: This was a mixed-methods study with community pharmacists and key informants in the Metro South Health (MSH) region of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. In Part 1, quantitative data was collected from community pharmacists via an electronic survey. In Part 2, qualitative data was collected from community pharmacists and key informants via in-depth interviews. This paper reports the findings of community pharmacists' perceptions of their role, knowledge and confidence to promote bowel cancer and breast cancer screening in community pharmacies. Results: A total of 27 community pharmacists (13 males, 14 females) completed the survey. Most (71%) either 'agreed' or 'strongly agreed' discussing health advice, such as cancer screening, with their consumers was valuable and integral to their broader role. An average of 60% described their confidence as 'average' or 'good' when discussing bowel and breast cancer screening and prevention with consumers. In eight knowledge questions about bowel and breast cancer and cancer screening, an average of 82% of community pharmacists responded with correct answers (range 52% to 100%). Community pharmacists were consistently more confident and knowledgeable about bowel cancer services than breast cancer services. Five (5) community pharmacists participated in in-depth interviews. The interview findings supported the quantitative findings. Most community pharmacists described their confidence to promote bowel cancer and breast cancer screening as moderate, and consistently reflected they felt more knowledgeable and confident about bowel cancer topics than breast cancer topics. Conclusions: Overall, this research supports the feasibility of promoting bowel cancer screening in community pharmacies. It suggests further training is warranted for community pharmacists to increase their knowledge of breast cancer and their confidence in promoting breast cancer referral and screening services. It highlights the important role community pharmacists have in increasing engagement in the national bowel cancer and breast cancer screening programs, and in potentially decreasing the mortality rates of these cancers

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  10 / 486 IBECS  
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Id: ET1-2732 IBECS-Express
Autor: Amer, Fathi Ahmed; Mohamed, Malik Suliman; Elbur, Abubaker Ibrahim; Abdelaziz, Sulafa Ibrahim; Elrayah, Zeinab Abdelrahman Bashir.
Título: Influence of self-efficacy management on adherence to self-care activities and treatment outcome among diabetes mellitus type 2 Sudanese patients
Fuente: Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet);16(4):0-0, oct.-dic. 2018. tab.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.18549/PharmPract.2018.04.1274.
Resumen: Background: High level of self-efficacy and adherence to self-care activities have a positive impact on the achievement of glycemic goal among diabetic patients. In Sudan, there is a gap in knowledge related to self-efficacy management and its influence on adherence to self-care activities and overall disease control. Objective: To identify the influence of management self-efficacy on adherence to self-care activities and treatment outcome among Sudanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at two health care facilities in Sudan from April to May 2016. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included. Convenience sampling method was adopted. Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale and the Revised Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities were used to collect data through a face-to-face interview. Logistic regression analysis was performed. A p value <0.05 was considered to be significant. Data were processed using the software SPPS v 21.0. Results: A total of 392 patients were included. Respondents classified with high level of self- efficacy across all domains were 191 (48.7%). Moreover, high level of education [adjusted OR 0.5 (0.3-0.7), (p=0.001)] and formal health education on diabetes [adjusted OR 2.4 (1.6-3.7), (p<0.001)], were found to be significantly associated with high level of diabetes management self-efficacy. Patients who had high level of self-efficacy to manage nutrition, physical exercise activity and medication were found more adherent to general diet, exercise activity, and medication taking, respectively. Patients with controlled disease were 87(22.2%). The only predictor of diabetes control was diabetes management self-efficacy [OR 2.1(1.3- 3.5), (p=0.002)]. Conclusions: Diabetes management self-efficacy was associated with high level of education and receiving health education. Self-efficacy was significantly associated with adherence to self-care activities and glycemic control. Substantial efforts are still needed to empower the patients with self-efficacy and improving adherence to self-care activities through appropriate interventions

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