Base de datos : IBECS
Búsqueda : "1889-1780" [ISSN]
Referencias encontradas : 349 [refinar]
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  1 / 349 IBECS  
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Id: 174412
Autor: Benuto, Lorraine T; Singer, Jonathan; Casas, Jena; González, Frances; Ruork, Allison.
Título: The Evolving Definition of Cultural Competency: A Mixed Methods Study
Fuente: Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.);18(3):371-384, oct. 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: This research established a definition of cultural competency from the perspective of the psychologists using mixed methodology. In Study 1 (N= 9) participants were interviewed and asked how they conceptualize cultural competency; three emergent themes were identified: awareness, knowledge, and skills. Based on the results from Study 1, a survey was created for Study 2 and completed by psychologists (N= 142). Results from a confirmatory factor analysis did not support cultural competency as a 3-dimensional construct. A post-hoc exploratory factor analysis suggested that cultural competency is best conceptualized as a 2-dimensional construct consisting of knowledge/awareness and skills. Results suggest that the knowledge needed to work with diverse populations is more than simply knowing about the major cultural groups in the United States; a more sophisticated level of knowledge is needed as there are many cultures and sub-cultures

No disponible
Descriptores: competencia cultural
diversidad cultural
procesos psicoterapéuticos
psicoterapia/estadística & datos numéricos
empatía
-factores culturales
relaciones interpersonales
resultado del tratamiento
grupos minoritarios/psicología
encuestas sobre atención a la salud/estadística & datos numéricos
psicólogos
Límites: humanos
Responsable: BNCS


  2 / 349 IBECS  
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Id: 174411
Autor: Tabullo, Angel Javier; Navas Jiménez, Violeta Araceli; Silvana García, Claudia.
Título: Associations between Fiction Reading, Trait Empathy and Theory of Mind Ability
Fuente: Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.);18(3):357-370, oct. 2018. ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: Several studies suggest a link between fiction reading and Theory of Mind, a component of cognitive empathy which refers to the ability to understand other people's mental and affective states. More frequent fiction readers perform better in tasks that require inference of intentions or emotions in others, like the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. In addition, subjects who read a fiction text obtain better scores than controls reading non-fiction. Since most of this research has been conducted on caucasic subjects, cross-cultural replication of the effect is still needed. The present study is the first to investigate the subject in a Latin American sample (208 adults -137 females-, ranging from 18 to 59 years old (M= 27.66). We replicated the association between lifelong exposure to print fiction and performance in the Reading the Mind in the eyes task, but the effect was only significant in men. The association remained significant after controlling for age, education level and self-reported Trait Empathy scores. The results are congruent with the hypothesis that reading promotes Theory of Mind ability by engaging mentalizing processes in order to represent the thoughts and feelings of fictional characters. The sex difference we observed had not been reported before and requires further replication and analysis

No disponible
Descriptores: teoría de la mente
empatía
Lectura
Literatura
teoría de los constructos personales
-afecto
cognición
Distribución por Sexos
desarrollo de la personalidad
Argentina
Límites: humanos
masculino
femenino
adolescente
adulto joven
adulto
mediana edad
Responsable: BNCS


  3 / 349 IBECS  
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Id: 174410
Autor: Azevedo, Julieta; Castilho, Paula; Palmeira, Lara.
Título: Early Emotional Memories and Borderline Symptoms: The Mediating Role of Decentering
Fuente: Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.);18(3):345-356, oct. 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: Several studies suggested that Borderline Personality Disorder is related to early invalidating and harsh environments, characterized by scarce experiences of warmth and safeness, and possibly traumatic shameful memories. On the other hand, the ability to take a stance and not get fused with one's internal experiences seems to be linked to diminished psychopathology. This study aims to understand the relationship between early emotional memories (of warmth and safeness experiences and shameful traumatic events) and borderline symptoms. Moreover, intends to explore the mediator role of decentering on the relationship between early emotional memories and borderline symptoms in a sample of 304 subjects from general community. Results showed significant correlations between early emotional memories, decentering and borderline symptoms. Additionally, our findings suggest that decentering mediate, at least partially, the effect of early emotional memories on borderline symptoms. Taken together, these findings point out for the importance of promoting decentering abilities with patients presenting borderline features

No disponible
Descriptores: ajuste emocional
recuerdo mental
trastorno de personalidad limítrofe/psicología
-vergüenza
trauma psicológico/psicología
psicometría/instrumentación
aflicción
desamparo aprendido
factores de riesgo
factores protectores
Límites: humanos
Responsable: BNCS


  4 / 349 IBECS  
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Texto Completo
Id: 174409
Autor: De Page, Louis; van der Heijden, Paul T; De Weerdt, Mercedes; Egger, Jos IM; Rossi, Gina.
Título: Differentiation between Defensive Personality Functioning and Psychopathology as Measured by the DSQ-42 and MMPI-2-RF
Fuente: Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.);18(3):331-343, oct. 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: Defensive functioning is considered one of the core aspects of personality functioning and its maturity level is regarded an important predictor of psychopathology and more specific personality pathology. The current investigation assesses the relation between overall defensive functioning, as measured by the Defense Style Questionnaire-42 (DSQ-42), and higher order models of psychopathology as measured by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). The DSQ-42 and MMPI-2-RF was completed by 383 patients. We analysed the MMPI-2-RF personality and psychopathology as measured with the Restructured Clinical scales and the Personality Psychopathology Five-revised scales using Goldberg's Bass Ackwards Method. Higher order dimensions of personality and psychopathology in the current investigation demonstrated structural similarity with previously reported higher order models. Next we examined the optimal level of differentiation of defensive functioning, as measured by the DSQ-42 Total and Overall Defensive Functioning scores, to personality and psychopathology at each succeeding level of the hierarchical factor structures. Results indicated that immature defense mechanisms exemplify strong correlations with internalizing pathology (i.e., Demoralisation and Introversion), but not with externalizing pathology and thought disorder. The differentiation of defensive functioning from higher order models of psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits seems to be limited, based on the current results. The DSQ-42 appeared to have a large overlap and correlations with internalizing pathology, which appeared to be due to its item content: mostly intrapsychic and immature defenses. Theoretical and clinical implications considering the use of the DSQ are discussed

No disponible
Descriptores: mecanismos de defensa
trastornos de la personalidad/psicología
pruebas psicológicas/estadística & datos numéricos
pruebas de personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos
-MMPI/estadística & datos numéricos
evaluación de la personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos
inventario de personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos
autoinforme/utilización
Límites: humanos
Responsable: BNCS


  5 / 349 IBECS  
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Texto Completo
Id: 174408
Autor: Morán, Valeria E; Olaz, Fabián O; Pérez, Edgardo R; Del Prette, Zilda AP.
Título: Emotional-Evolutional Model of Social Anxiety in University Students
Fuente: Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.);18(3):315-330, oct. 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: Studies of social anxiety in university students have become of particular importance given its disabling impact over social adjustment and psychological well-being. The present research had the objective of developing an explanatory model of this phenomenon with principles based on attachment theory and the theories of emotional regulation. We worked with a sample of 438 university students and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for data analysis. We produced an explanatory model which presented appropriate adjustment indexes (CFI= .95; GFI= .95; RMSEA= .05). In this model, the predictive role of expectations of social rejection and the difficulties in emotion regulation in the aetiology of social anxiety are clear. These factors are in turn influenced by the fear of abandonment linked to internal working models of insecure attachment of development in early childhood. Significant differences were found in favour of women in percentages of variance explained in social anxiety and expectations of social rejection

No disponible
Descriptores: fobia social/psicología
trastornos de ansiedad/psicología
adaptación social
adaptación psicológica
-estudiantes/psicología
relaciones interpersonales
cambio social
pruebas psicológicas/estadística & datos numéricos
ajuste emocional
rechazo (psicología)
Límites: humanos
masculino
femenino
adolescente
adulto joven
adulto
mediana edad
Responsable: BNCS


  6 / 349 IBECS  
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Texto Completo
Id: 174407
Autor: Hickman Rodríguez, Hortensia; Cepeda Islas, M Luisa; Moreno Rodríguez, Diana; Méndez, Sergio M; Arroyo Hernández, Rosalinda.
Título: Tipos instruccionales y regulación verbal. Comparación entre niños y adultos / Types of instructions and verbal regulation. Comparative study between children and adults
Fuente: Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.);18(3):301-313, oct. 2018. ilus, tab, graf.
Idioma: es.
Resumen: No disponible

The aim of these paper was to evaluate the effect of three types of instructions (general, precise, and specific) on the performance of a problem solving task and its relation with verbal regulation using the Tower of London (TOL) as methodological tool. Participants (30 adults and 30 children) held a session of 24 trials of different complexity, carried out according to the number of movements required to reach the goal (4, 5 and 6). The results showed significant differences between children and adults in all dependent variables, acording on the number of movements required in trials. Although less strongly, differences were also observed as a result of the type of instruction to which the participants were exposed. The analysis of verbal reports served as indicators of the type of verbal regulation that mediated the performance. It is discussed the need to elaborate comparative studies that allow to systematically evaluate the types of verbal regulation deployed during problem solving tasks in participants of different ages
Descriptores: conducta verbal
investigación conductual/métodos
escala de evaluación de la conducta/estadística & datos numéricos
solución de problemas
-conducta social
toma de decisión
modelos educativos
control social formal
realización y análisis de una tarea
Límites: humanos
niño
adulto
Responsable: BNCS


  7 / 349 IBECS  
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Texto Completo
Id: 174406
Autor: Dunne, Ciara; McEnteggart, Ciara; Harte, Colin; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne.
Título: Faking a Race IRAP Effect in the Context of Single versus Multiple Label Stimuli
Fuente: Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.);18(3):289-300, oct. 2018. ilus, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: In this study, white participants were exposed to a single-label or multiple-label racial bias IRAP before and after a faking instruction (i.e., two exposures to the IRAP). The faking instruction involved asking all participants to imagine that they were a black person when completing the second IRAP. The results indicated that participants produced evidence of pro-white and anti-black biases both before and after receiving the faking instruction. Analyses of variance revealed no main or interaction effects for the single- versus multiple-label variable, and trial-type specific paired t-tests yielded no significant differences between the pre- and post-faking instruction IRAPs. The results were consistent with previous racial bias findings using the IRAP and supported the conclusion that faking only occurs when participants are provided with specific information about the task parameters. Implications for faking research, and the impact of instructions generally, on the IRAP are discussed

No disponible
Descriptores: psicometría/instrumentación
racismo/psicología
relaciones interraciales/psicología
-segregación social/psicología
estigma social
emoción expresada/clasificación
Límites: humanos
masculino
femenino
adolescente
adulto joven
adulto
Responsable: BNCS


  8 / 349 IBECS  
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Texto Completo
Id: 174405
Autor: Salazar, Daniela M; Ruiz, Francisco J; Flórez, Cindy L; Suárez Falcón, Juan C.
Título: Psychometric Properties of the Generalized Pliance Questionnaire-Children
Fuente: Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.);18(3):273-287, oct. 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: Empirical research on pliance, a functional class of rule-governed behavior, has been scarce in children. This study aims to develop a children version of the Generalized Pliance Questionnaire (GPQ), a self-report developed for adults that has shown excellent psychometric properties, a one-factor structure, and criterion validity. In so doing, we adapted the vocabulary of some the GPQ items and eliminated the items with content typical of adult life. Afterwards, the GPQ for children (i.e., GPQ-C) was administered to a sample of 797 Colombian children from 8 to 13 years. All items of the GPQ-C showed good discrimination indexes and the whole questionnaire showed adequate internal consistency. A cross-validation study was conducted to analyze the factor structure of the questionnaire. The analysis showed that a one-factor structure showed a good fit to the data. The GPQ-C showed measurement invariance across gender and age group. Girls obtained higher scores than boys on the GPQ-C. Also, the GPQ-C scores seemed to decrease with age. The GPQ-C strongly correlated with measures of psychological inflexibility, repetitive negative thinking, pathological worry, and emotional symptoms. In conclusion, the GPQ-C seems to be a valid and reliable measure of generalized pliance for children

No disponible
Descriptores: deseabilidad social
psicometría/instrumentación
concepto de sí mismo
autonomía personal
-tratamiento de aceptación y responsabilidad/métodos
validez de las pruebas
reproducibilidad de resultados
normas sociales
Límites: humanos
masculino
femenino
niño
adolescente
Responsable: BNCS


  9 / 349 IBECS  
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Texto Completo
Id: 174404
Autor: Visdómine Lozano, Juan Carmelo.
Título: Brain Activation for Effort in Human Learning: A Critical and Systematic Review of fMRI Studies
Fuente: Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.);18(3):257-271, oct. 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: This paper aims to review studies concerned on registering the activation of brain areas during the performance of tasks based on effort, as well as on determining specifically the role of the amygdala in such situations. The search was carried out in three databases: PubMed database, Neuroscience Information Framework, and PsycARTICLES section of the APA PsycNET database; 48 studies presented a methodological arrangement clearly oriented to analyze the effort during the performance of learning tasks. The studies reviewed employed tasks like memorization, decision-making, calculation, motor sequences, and spatial discrimination. Though some variability is found, the main key areas activated for such tasks were: a) Prefrontal cortex, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex in memorization tasks; (b) Cerebellum, basal ganglia, motor and pre-motor areas in specific motor tasks; (c) Nucleus accumbens and striatum when explicit reinforcing consequences and high effort were involved; (d) Cingulate cortex for effort requirements and persistent behavior; and (e) Hypothalamus, hippocampus, and related regions for the initial consolidation of memory, as well as for spatial discrimination. The amygdala was activated only under very specific conditions: in unpredictable contingencies (i.e., for superstitious behavior), and when the effort was far above the average. Thus, since the amygdala is the main area activated in aversive conditioning, we conclude that the performance of tasks based on effort, in general, cannot be considered equivalent to the aversive conditioning in neurological terms, accordingly to the review performed

No disponible
Descriptores: aprendizaje/fisiología
procesos mentales/fisiología
-amígdala del cerebelo/fisiología
hipocampo/fisiología
giro del cíngulo/fisiología
corteza prefrontal/fisiología
cerebelo/fisiología
núcleo accumbens/fisiología
Límites: humanos
Tipo de Publicación: revisión
Responsable: BNCS


  10 / 349 IBECS  
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Texto Completo
Id: 174403
Autor: Guzmán Sescosse, Mario; Padrós Blázquez, Ferrán; Laca Arocena, Francisco; García Campos, Tonatiuh.
Título: A Pilot Study of Posttraumatic Growth Training for Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Fuente: Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.);18(2):235-246, jun. 2018. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: The aim of the present study was to identify if a training to favor PG in patients with PTSD (PGT) generates improvement compared to only the application of conventional treatment. The instruments applied were: Maladaptation Scale, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Severity Scale, Psychological Well-Being Scale, and Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory. All 10 participants received Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) for PTSD. Two groups were then randomly formed. The PGT was administered to the experimental group and the control group was kept on wait list. The four scales were applied before, after the treatment and again after one year. The experimental group showed an improvement in Psychological Well-Being and was almost statistically significant with respect to PG. However, there were no differences in PTSD symptoms or in maladaptation levels. It is concluded that PGT was effective in increasing psychological well-being for the participants. This study might be improved by increasing the sample size for those who receive PGT be also for PG, which may act as a protective factor against future relapses or other disorders

No disponible
Descriptores: trastornos de estrés postraumático/terapia
terapia cognitiva/métodos
procesos psicoterapéuticos
condicionamiento (psicología)
-detección de señales psicológicas
resultado del tratamiento
ajuste emocional
trauma psicológico/terapia
estudios retrospectivos
Límites: humanos
masculino
femenino
adulto joven
adulto
mediana edad
Responsable: BNCS



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