Base de datos : IBECS
Búsqueda : "1138-7416" [ISSN]
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Id: ET1-6771 IBECS-Express
Autor: Taylor, Shelley E.
Título: How are social ties protective?
Fuente: Span. j. psychol;23:e41.1-e41.4, 2020.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.1017/SJP.2020.35.
Resumen: Social ties are the most important resource human beings have. Although other people can be difficult and challenging, they can also provide protection, solace, and social support, among other benefits. However, some relationships can be toxic and because these adverse conditions can be physiologically taxing, they can negatively affect both mental and physical health. Changes such as these can operate in large part through alterations in the sympathetic nervous system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system, and the immune system. Much of the benefit of social support is perceptual and stems from the comfort of believing that supportive others can or will be there when times are stressful. The abilities to gain and perceive social support begin early in life and are heavily influenced by the climate of the family. Social support depends, in part, on reciprocity, yet many challenges to receiving support exist. Giving support to others has its own psychological and physiological benefits, although at intense levels, such as demanding caregiving responsibilities, these benefits dwindle. Moreover, social support needs change over time with changing circumstances. Public policy efforts to help people build and capitalize on their potential support networks is essential to maximize the impact of social ties on mental and physical health

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  2 / 1239 IBECS  
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Id: ET1-6770 IBECS-Express
Autor: Forcadell, Eduard; Medrano, Laura; Garcia-Delgar, Blanca; Fernández-Martínez, Iván; Orgilés, Mireia; García, Carolina; Lázaro, Luisa; Lera-Miguel, Sara.
Título: Psychometric properties of the children's version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) in a Spanish clinical sample
Fuente: Span. j. psychol;23:e40.1-e40.12, 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.1017/SJP.2020.39.
Resumen: The Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) has demonstrated good psychometric properties in several countries and cultures. Nevertheless, most of the previous studies that explore these properties have combined clinical and community samples. We aimed to validate the Spanish version of the SCAS in a large clinical sample (N = 130) of children and adolescents. The Spanish adaptation of the SCAS showed good internal consistency for the total scale, and good test-retest reliability for all the subscales. Furthermore, its convergent and discriminant validity were supported by significant correlations with other anxiety questionnaires (Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders [SCARED], Youth Self-Report [YSR] subscales for anxiety disorders and internalizing symptomatology), and lower or non-significant correlations with depression symptoms and externalizing symptoms scales respectively. For the first time in a purely clinical sample, the original factor structure of the SCAS based on six correlated factors was confirmed. Future studies need to evaluate whether the factorial structure of the present instrument is the most suitable for use in clinical populations

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  3 / 1239 IBECS  
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Id: ET1-6769 IBECS-Express
Autor: Bravo, Natalia; Lázaro, Miguel; Mariscal, Sonia.
Título: A sentence repetition task for early language assessment in Spanish
Fuente: Span. j. psychol;23:e39.1-e39.10, 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: Sentence repetition tasks have been widely used in the last years as a diagnostic tool in developmental language disorders. However in Spanish there are few (if any) of these instruments, especially for younger children. In this context, we develop a new Sentence Repetition Task for assessing language (morphosyntactic) abilities of very young Spanish children. A list of 33 sentences of different length and complexity was created and included in the task. A total of 130 typical developing children from 2 to 4 years of age were engaged in a play situation and asked to repeat the sentences. Children's answers were scored for accuracy at sentence and word level and error analysis at the word level was undertaken. Besides a subsample of 92 children completed a non-word repetition task. First results show its adequacy to children from 2 to 4 years of age, its capacity to discriminate between different developmental levels, and its concurrent validity with the nonword repetition task

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  4 / 1239 IBECS  
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Id: ET1-6768 IBECS-Express
Autor: Alves, Marta Pereira; Dimas, Isabel Dórdio; Lourenço, Paulo Renato.
Título: How does the leader's centrality affect team performance assessment? Testing the role of leader's satisfaction
Fuente: Span. j. psychol;23:e38.1-e38.14, 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.1017/SJP.2020.42.
Resumen: The study aims to test how the association between leader's centrality (outdegree and betweenness) in the group network, considering both workflow and friendship ties between leader and members, and the perception of team performance is mediated by the leader's satisfaction with the team. The research included a total of 74 formal leaders of organizational teams from several organizations. Total, direct and indirect effects were calculated through the estimation of an OLS regression-based mediation model, controlling for team size. Results revealed that only leader's outdegree and betweenness centrality in the team friendship network positively predicted the leader's perception of team performance. In contrast to the predictions, a significant negative indirect effect of outdegree centrality of the leader within the team workflow network on the evaluation of group performance through leader's satisfaction was observed. Also, both leader's outdegree and betweenness centrality levels in the friendship network were shown to have a positive effect on leader's assessment of team performance through leader's satisfaction with the team. Overall, findings point to the negative effects of leader's centrality in the workflow team network and the positive effects of leader's centrality in the friendship team network on his/her attitudes toward the team. The effects of the more or less central position of the leader within each of the group networks are discussed

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  5 / 1239 IBECS  
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Id: ET1-6767 IBECS-Express
Autor: Introzzi, Isabel; Zamora, Eliana; Aydmune, Yesica; Richard's, María Marta; Comesaña, Ana; Canet-Juric, Lorena.
Título: The change processes in selective attention during adulthood. Inhibition or processing speed?
Fuente: Span. j. psychol;23:e37.1-e37.10, 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.1017/SJP.2020.41.
Resumen: Selective attention is involved in multiple daily activities. Several authors state that it experiences a decline after 20 years, although there is no agreement regarding the cognitive processes that explain it. Two theories dominate the discussion: The theory of inhibitory inefficiency and the theory of processing speed. At the same time, it has been suggested that there could be complementary relations between both; however, it is not clear what the contribution of inhibition and processing speed is on the changes of selective attention. Therefore, the present study proposes to analyze this contribution, in adults between 20 and 80 years old. To assess selective attention and inhibitory control, two indices of a visual search task were obtained in which participants must identify a target stimulus among a set of distracting stimuli. To evaluate the processing speed, a response speed task was used. The main results indicate that, from the age of 60, a gradual decrease in selective attention begins and that this decline can be largely explained by a decrease in processing speed and inhibitory control. We discuss about the literature on the development of selective attention, the contribution of processing speed, and the inhibitory inefficiency hypothesis

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  6 / 1239 IBECS  
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Id: ET1-6766 IBECS-Express
Autor: Durón-Figueroa, Raúl; Cárdenas-López, Georgina; Quero, Soledad.
Título: Efficacy of an early cognitive-behavioral intervention for acute stress disorder in Mexican earthquake victims
Fuente: Span. j. psychol;23:e36.1-e36.14, 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.1017/SJP.2020.37.
Resumen: Acute stress disorder (ASD) refers to the symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) within the first four weeks following the traumatic event. Recent theoretical models suggest that early detection of ASD provides an opportunity to implement early interventions to prevent the development of PTSD or ameliorate its symptomatology. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the efficacy of an ASD treatment for earthquake victims, which would serve as an early intervention for PTSD. A single-case (n = 1) quasi-experimental design was used, with pre and post-assessments, as well as one, three and six-month follow-ups, with direct treatment replications. Fourteen participants completed the treatment and the follow-up measurements. The results obtained using a single-case analysis showed significant clinical improvement and clinically significant change when employing a clinical significance analysis and the reliable index of change. Statistical analyses of the dataset displayed statistically significant differences between the pre and post-assessments and the follow-up measures, as well as large effect sizes in all clinical measures. These results suggest that the treatment was an efficacious early intervention for PTSD during the months following the traumatic event, although some relevant study limitations are discussed in the text

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  7 / 1239 IBECS  
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Id: ET1-6023 IBECS-Express
Autor: Godoy-Izquierdo, Débora; González-Hernández, Juan; Lara, Raquel; Rodríguez-Tadeo, Alejandra; Ramírez, María J; Navarrón, Estefanía; Ogallar-Blanco, Adelaida; López-Mora, Clara; Arbinaga, Félix.
Título: Considering BMI, body image and desired weight change for suitable obesity management options
Fuente: Span. j. psychol;23:e35.1-e35.14, 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.1017/SJP.2020.36.
Resumen: With prevalence of obesity increasing worldwide, understanding body image in individuals with excessive weight is important, as unawareness of weight excess can prevent weight loss attempts. We explored the associations among measured and self-reported body mass index (BMI), body image and body satisfaction among Spanish females and males with overweight or obesity, with a special focus in discriminating individuals who are and are not satisfied with their body and wish or not to change their appearance. Just unifying all individuals with excessive weight may lead to uncover or deny different realities and to develop unfitted clinical management options. Updating findings for the Spanish population, we found that most participants correctly estimated their weight, but 3 in 10 underestimated it. Similarly, their body images corresponded to adults with overweight or obesity who desired to be thinner, but in average they reported a perceived body just slightly overweight and a moderate satisfaction with their body. Complementing the existing evidence, BMI and sex-gender interacted for influencing body weight estimation and desired weight change. In addition, three different subgroups were found for desired change of weight and size, depending on their BMI and body satisfaction. Discovering and considering different subjective realities and corporeal experiences among individuals with weight excess will help professionals to develop appropriate therapeutic interventions. Thus, the personal experiences that individuals have with obesity, instead of obesity itself, should be considered for disentangling management efforts

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  8 / 1239 IBECS  
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Id: ET1-6022 IBECS-Express
Autor: Blondé, Jérôme; Falomir-Pichastor, Juan M.
Título: Accounting for the consequences of tobacco dependence on cravings, self-efficacy, and motivation to quit: consideration of identity concerns
Fuente: Span. j. psychol;23:e34.1-e34.9, 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.1017/SJP.2020.34.
Resumen: Tobacco dependence has been found to increase smoking cravings, and reduce both self-efficacy and motivation to quit. The present research proposes to test the hypothesis that such negative consequences are related to identity concerns and should thus appear more strongly in dependent smokers with a high (vs. low) smoker identity. In two correlational studies, daily smokers (Study 1: N = 237; Study 2: N = 154) were assessed for tobacco dependence, smoker identity, self-efficacy, craving to smoke (Study 1), and motivation to quit (Study 2). Among smokers who declared to be strongly dependent, those scoring high in smoker identity reported more smoking cravings (Beta = .28, p = .008, 95% CI [0.084, 0.563], = .03) and less motivation to quit than those scoring low (Beta = -.58, p = .003, 95% CI [-1.379, -0.282], = .06). Smoker identity was unrelated to these variables among non-dependent smokers (ps > .40). The relationship between tobacco dependence and self-efficacy was not affected by smoker identity (ps > .45). Through these studies, we provided evidence that the implications of tobacco dependence on smoking maintenance and difficulties in quitting may be, in part, explained by identity mechanisms

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  9 / 1239 IBECS  
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Id: ET1-6021 IBECS-Express
Autor: Costa, Mónica; Mena Matos, Paula; Pinheiro Mota, Catarina.
Título: Validation of a Portuguese version of the Aspiration Index for adolescents (AI)
Fuente: Span. j. psychol;23:e32.1-e32.10, 2020. tab.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.1017/SJP.2020.22.
Resumen: Intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation have been widely studied, and their importance on both developmental and educational practices has led to the development of assessment tools. The Aspiration Index scale (AI; Grouzet et al., 2005), which was developed to measure people's life aspirations, was translated and validated into Portuguese. A sample of 1,359 adolescents, age ranged from 12 to 18 years-old, participated in the present study. Results showed that a factor structure with the eleven subscales of the AI does not fit the data. However we gathered support for a three-factor structure that organized the items in terms of whether aspirations are intrinsically, extrinsically or self-transcendent oriented. Internal consistency and temporal stability yielded good results. The predictive and criterion validities were demonstrated by significant associations with theoretically supported measures of satisfaction with life and father and mother attachment. The multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed that this structure was invariant across gender. These results suggest that the AI is a reliable measure to assess different types of life aspirations and can be used in future research with adolescents in Portugal

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  10 / 1239 IBECS  
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Id: ET1-6020 IBECS-Express
Autor: Lima, Marcos Felipe Rodrigues de; Venâncio, Sebastião; Feminella, Júlia; Buratto, Luciano Grüdtner.
Título: Does item difficulty affect the magnitude of the retrieval practice effect? An evaluation of the retrieval effort hypothesis
Fuente: Span. j. psychol;23:e31.1-e31.22, 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
doi: 10.1017/SJP.2020.33.
Resumen: Retrieving information by testing improves subsequent retention more than restudy, a phenomenon known as the retrieval practice effect. According to the retrieval effort hypothesis (REH), difficult items require more retrieval effort than easier items and, consequently, should benefit more from retrieval practice. In two experiments, we tested this prediction. Participants learned sets of easy and difficult Swahili-Portuguese word pairs (study phase) and repeatedly restudied half of these items and repeatedly retrieval practiced the other half (practice phase). Forty-eight hours later, they took a cued-recall test (final test phase). In both experiments, we replicated both the retrieval practice and the item difficulty effects. In Experiment 1 (N = 51), we found a greater retrieval practice effect for easy items, MDifference = .26, SD = .17, than for difficult items, MDifference = .19, SD = .19, t(50) = 2.01, p = .05, d = 0.28. In Experiment 2 (N = 28), we found a nonsignificant trend-F(1, 27) = 2.86, p = .10, = .10-toward a greater retrieval practice effect for difficult items, MDifference = .28, SD = .22, than for easy items, MDifference = .18, SD = .21. This was especially true for individuals who benefit from retrieval practice (difficult: MDifference = .32, SD = .18; easy: MDifference = .20, SD = .20), t(24) = -2.08, p = .05, d = -0.42. The results provide no clear evidence for the REH and are discussed in relation to current accounts of the retrieval practice effect

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